WHY MENSTRUATION AND NOT WOMENSTRUATION

Menstruation (also known as a period) is the regular discharge of blood and tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina. The menstrual cycle is characterized by the rise and fall of hormones. Menstruation is triggered by falling progesterone levels and is a sign that pregnancy has not taken place. Menstruation is having your period is when blood and tissue from your uterus comes out of you.

Menstruation which is commonly known as getting your “period” is the vaginal bleeding that every woman goes through each month. The bleeding lasts at about 4-7 days, which is the “period” whereas “menstrual cycle” lasts at about 28-35 days between each period. Menarche or the age at which adolescent girls first start experiencing their period ranges between 8 years to 12years, but with time changing and better quality of life and mortality rates, it is common for girls to start menstruating before the age of 12 nowadays.

Menopause or the age at which women finally stop having to experience their periods, usually onsets around the age of 45 years. The phase in-between menarche and menopause is known as the fertile period during which women can conceive children. Once menopause gets to set in, female fertility comes to an end which means she might not be able to give birth anymore.

The terms “menstruation” and “menses” are derived from the Latin word mensis (month), which in turn relates to the Greek mene (moon) and to the roots of the English words month and moon. The vaginal bleeding that characterizes a period is a mix of blood, nutrients, and endometrial tissue. Every month, when the ovum {egg} is released into the uterus from the ovaries, the endometrium thickens in preparation to house an embryo if the released ovum is fertilized by a sperm during that cycle. In lack of this event, the uterus sheds this lining, which comes out as our period. Thus the endometrium thickens and sheds each month, which is what we know as menstruation. Though periods may come across as an overwhelming amount of blood loss at first, the blood we lose on our period amounts to just about 80 CCs. This blood doesn’t clot because of substances called plasmin and prostacyclins, which act to prevent the coagulation of blood and aggregation of platelets in the process.

Menstrual cycles vary from person to person. This can manifest in different ways, like periods without any PMS, light flows or extremely heavy flows, shorter or longer periods, etc. These can be broadly categorized into either frequency disturbances or rhythm disturbances. Keep in mind that it is always better to consult a doctor if you feel like something is amiss. Also remember that if you are experiencing such disturbances at either the onset of your first period or the offset of your last period, this is most likely nothing to worry about, since a little bit of fluctuation when your body is changing is normal and expected.

When you are menstruating or your sister, neighbor, families, loved ones or a poor little girl down the street, we recommend you to use Pad-Up Creations Menstrual kit, it is 100% chemical free, washable, reusable, super thin, breathable and highly absorbent. Our pads are made from high-quality natural materials which are good for you and our planet! Our pads/ products are guaranteed 100% no rashes, infections, stains, removal or leaks since they are made using chemical-free.

Although a normal and natural process,[some women experience problems sufficient to disrupt their lives as a result of their menstrual cycle. These include acne, tender breasts, feeling tired, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). More severe problems such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder are experienced by 3 to 8% of women, Dysmenorrhea or “period pain” can cause cramps in the abdomen, back, or upper thighs that occur during the first few days of menstruation. Debilitating period pain is not normal and can be a sign of something severe such as endometriosis as these issues can significantly affect a woman’s health and quality of life and timely interventions can improve the lives of these women.

There are common culturally communicated misbeliefs that the menstrual cycle affects women’s moods, causes depression or irritability, or that menstruation is a painful, shameful or unclean experience. Often a woman’s normal mood variation is falsely attributed to the menstrual cycle. Much of the research is weak, but there appears to be a very small increase in mood fluctuations during the luteal and menstrual phases, and a corresponding decrease during the rest of the cycle, changing levels of estrogen and progesterone across the menstrual cycle exert systemic effects on aspects of physiology including the brain, metabolism, and musculoskeletal system. The result can be subtle physiological and observable changes to women’s athletic performance including strength, aerobic, and anaerobic performance. Changes to the brain have also been observed throughout the menstrual cycle but do not translate into measurable changes in intellectual achievement – including academic performance, problem-solving, memory, and creativity. Improvements in spatial reasoning ability during the menstruation phase of the cycle are probably caused by decreases in levels of estrogen and progesterone.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to emotional and physical symptoms that regularly occur in the one to two weeks before the start of each menstrual period, symptoms resolve around the time menstrual bleeding begins. Different women experience different symptoms the common emotional symptoms include irritability and mood changes. The common physical symptoms include acne, tender breasts, bloating, and feeling tired. These are nonspecific symptoms and may be seen in women without PMS. Often PMS-related symptoms are present for about six days in an individual’s pattern of symptoms may change over time as symptoms do not occur during pregnancy or following menopause. Diagnosis requires a consistent pattern of emotional and physical symptoms occurring after ovulation and before menstruation to a degree that interferes with normal life.

Emotional symptoms must not be present during the initial part of the menstrual cycle as a daily list of symptoms over a few months may help in diagnosis as other disorders that cause similar symptoms need to be excluded before a diagnosis is made. The cause of PMS is unknown, but the underlying mechanism is believed to involve changes in hormone levels. Reducing salt, alcohol, caffeine, and stress along with increasing exercise is typically all that is recommended in those with mild symptoms. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation may be useful in some as anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen may help with physical symptoms. In those with more significant symptoms birth control pills or the diuretic spironolactone may be useful. Up to 80% of women report having some symptoms after ovulation.

Cramps in most women, various physical changes are brought about by fluctuations in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. This includes muscle contractions of the uterus (menstrual cramping) that can precede or accompany menstruation. Many women experience painful cramps, also known as dysmenorrhea, during menstruation as among adult women, that pain is severe enough to affect daily activity, severe symptoms that disrupt daily activities and functioning may be diagnosed as premenstrual dysphoric disorder. These symptoms can be severe enough to affect a person’s performance at work, school, and in everyday activities in a small percentage of women as when there is severe pelvic pain and bleeding suddenly occur or worsen during a cycle.

Your menstrual cycle helps your body prepare for pregnancy every month. It also makes you have a period if you’re not pregnant. Your menstrual cycle and period are controlled by hormones like estrogen and progesterone. Here’s how it all goes down, you have 2 ovaries, and each one holds a bunch of eggs. The eggs are super tiny, too small to see with the naked eye. During your menstrual cycle, hormones make the eggs in your ovaries mature as when an egg is mature, that means it’s ready to be fertilized by a sperm cell. These hormones also make the lining of your uterus thick and spongy. So if your egg does get fertilized, it has a nice cushy place to land and start a pregnancy. This lining is made of tissue and blood, like almost everything else inside our bodies. It has lots of nutrients to help a pregnancy grow as about halfway through your menstrual cycle, your hormones tell one of your ovaries to release a mature egg which is called ovulation.

Most people don’t feel it when they ovulate, but some ovulation symptoms are bloating, spotting, or a little pain in your lower belly that you may only feel on one side. Once the egg leaves your ovary, it travels through one of your fallopian tubes toward your uterus that is if pregnancy doesn’t happen, your body doesn’t need the thick lining in your uterus. Your lining breaks down, and the blood, nutrients, and tissue flow out of your body through your vagina…. it’s your period! But if you do get pregnant, your body needs the lining — that’s why your period stops during pregnancy. Your period comes back when you’re not pregnant anymore.

When in life do periods start and stop? At some point during puberty, blood comes out of your vagina, and that’s your first period. Most people get their first period between age of 8 and 12, but some people get them earlier or later than that. There’s no way to know exactly when you’ll get it, but you may feel some PMS symptoms (link to PMS section) a few days before it happens. If you don’t get your period by the time you’re 16, it’s a good idea to visit a doctor or nurse. Read more about getting your first period.

Most people stop getting their period when they’re between 45 and 55 years old — this is called Menopause. Menopause can take a few years, and periods usually change gradually during this time. After menopause is totally complete, you can’t get pregnant anymore. Read more about menopause. Your period may start and stop around the time it did for other people you’re related to, like your mom or sisters.

Do transgender guys get a period? Not everybody who gets a period identifies as a girl or woman. Transgender men and genderqueer people who have uteruses, vaginas, fallopian tubes, and ovaries also get their periods. Having a period can be a stressful experience for some trans folks because it’s a reminder that their bodies don’t match their true gender identity — this discomfort and anxiety is sometimes called Gender Dysphoria. Other trans people might not be too bothered by their periods. Either reaction is normal and okay as sometimes trans people who haven’t reached puberty yet take hormones to prevent all of the gendered body changes that happen during puberty, including periods. There can be some changes in your menstrual cycle before it stops for good. Periods get lighter and shorter over time, or come when you don’t expect it. You may have spotting or cramping every once in a while until you stop getting your period, and sometimes even after it seems to have stopped — this is normal…..

When can I get pregnant during my menstrual cycle? You have the highest chance of getting pregnant on the days leading up to ovulation (when your ovary releases a mature egg) — these are called fertile days .Ovulation usually happens about 14 days before your period starts — but everyone’s body is different. You may ovulate earlier or later, depending on the length of your menstrual cycle. Your egg lives for about 1 day after it’s released from your ovary, and sperm can live in your uterus and fallopian tubes for about 6 days after sex. So you can usually get pregnant for around 6 days of every menstrual cycle: the 5 days before you ovulate, and the day you ovulate. You can also get pregnant a day or so after ovulation, but it’s less likely. Many people track their menstrual cycles and other fertility signs to help them figure out when they’re ovulating. This is called fertility awareness — some people use it to prevent pregnancy, and others use it to try to get pregnant which makes it easy to chart your cycle and figure out your fertile days. Some people have very regular cycles, and other people’s cycles vary from month to month. It’s really common for young people to have irregular periods. Since your period can be unpredictable, it’s hard to know for sure when you’ll ovulate (even if you’re carefully tracking your menstrual cycle).

YOUTH AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT BRINGS DEVELOPMENT TO THE COMMUNITIES AND SOCIETIES AT LARGE

Over the years, the international community and national governments have stressed the importance of Women and Youth Empowerment

As Pad-Up Creations Limited has been Setting the Pace to take Women and Youth to the fore front when it comes to Empowerment and Development…. to be self reliant, independent and self employed.

Consequently, various conventions and conferences outlined platforms including the United Nations Convention on women’s rights and development. In line with the Sustainable Development Goals, the Nigerian Government designed various women economic empowerment programmes at the national, state and local levels. In order to compliment government’s effort and bring to bear the impact of the SDG on the rural and urban communities, establishment of skills acquisition centers, small scale farming and provision of soft loan to empower women and youths.

The rationale behind this initiative is to further complement the government and the NGO’s for efforts towards the welfare programmes to emancipate and broaden the knowledge of women, youths, widows and the less privileged from ignorance, poverty and diseases in order to redress the prevalent imbalance in the area of education and immediate environment. In addition, it is to contribute to nation building by producing self-employed people who can establish on their own and employ others, by contributing to the societal welfare through the training of the underprivileged and to assist the youths and women in acquiring basic skills so that they can be efficient, self-sustaining and self-reliant.

Nowadays, it is essential to adapt our arguments to the context and to focus directly on what could influence citizens’ choice, namely the financial impact of conservatism or the shortfalls due to the political and economic exclusion of young people and women over a long period time. Consequently, it is necessary to highlight the effects of social development on financial policies without a drastic social change the financial development of nations cannot take place as it is suppose to be in the favor of the entire citizens as a whole.

Furthermore, with every indications it has clearly shown that the most developed regions are the regions with a better integration rate of women and young people in paramilitaries, public and private sectors as well as in political positions while on the contrary, the conservative regions, although they often have important natural resources but still struggles to make progress financially maximising the chances of a population’s success that inevitably involves the development of all its skills, especially for populations made up mostly of young people, where women are increasingly educated and represent an important workforce in the society.

If young people are known for having an entrepreneurial skills and innovative spirit, empathy, kindness and being ethical which are highly recognized as being female qualities… A society in which leadership is innovative, energetic, empathetic and benevolent can only develop in the right direction when the issues of reinforcing female and youth leadership which demonstrates evidence and acknowledge which until now, the positive discrimination against women and youth has been an integral part that needs review and development in political leadership generally as a whole as well as enabling the youth and women in the better participation in decision making without experiencing violence against women. Nevertheless, if the youth and women are still experiencing an unprecedented development in their favor with no or low representation rates then surely it is as a result of a lack of organization due to the characteristics of the population in the framework of cooperation to be carried out in the empowerment of young people and women as a very vital the key to development.

Strengthening the Role of Women in Society is a necessary step needed to be taken to reinforce the efforts undertaken which is an opportunity to advance towards the advancement of technologies and development that is through concrete approaches, the place of women in both political and economic levels are however far beyond the political domain which very few mechanisms have been introduced to affirm this leadership mainly through the economic domain. Major challenges surrounding empowerment of youth and women are still to be taken note of at this era and time of generation in which we tend to find ourselves in. An empowerment which has to do with finance, the important key is encouraging women and young people to take responsibilities right from their early age in their career in other to give themselves the widest range of options available at their disposal, with a limit to social change, the financial development of nations cannot take place.

This will enable them to be closer to their skills and ambitions, in an enabling environment, to be aware of the laws adapted to professional integration, a financial system in line with their needs and an administration which is reactive and attentive. Financial empowerment must be accompanied by mechanisms of equal access to information, thus compensating for the lack of social integration of this population and allowing existing financial opportunities to be made more evident.

In a world where technology offers unprecedented openness until now, the steps taken by progressive individuals to make a case in favor of better inclusion of women and youth people in political processes, were based mainly on arguments linked to principles of equality and human rights. Yet, those from countries where the conservative way of thinking is dominant, awareness with these arguments do not have the necessary impact to inject a change of pace that we are expecting. Moreover, this is why weather be it a new law, initiative or programme there are always moments we sense the difficulty of imposing a certain rationality on the debate, to quickly fall into ideological wars that result in the initiatives taken losing their consistency, and consequently their impact.

Nowadays, it is essential to adapt our arguments to the context and to focus directly on promoting and realizing standards and fundamental principles and rights at workforce thereby creating a greater opportunities for women and youths to secure decent employment and income which will enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all and strengthen social dialogue among them respectively as programme and contributions will create decent employment opportunities for improved livelihoods and alleviation of poverty aiming at contributions towards the reduction of unemployment, among the youth and women, through the creation of employment opportunities in a number of areas and communities.

Empowerment of young people and women is the key to development as it is essential to achieving the empowerment women if given the opportunity to explore, advance, through concrete approaches, to economic levels, it is necessary to underline the impact of mobility on empowerment and development of leadership, social impact has never been undertaken. Empowering the youth and women will help to put a stop to the wrong vices that most women and youth engage in lately as a result of sitting idle doing nothing thereby wasting precious and useful time in dangerous and vein talks which leads to joining bad gangs .

Lack of youth and women empowerment can lead to the society to be become uncomfortable and dangerous to its people

PROVIDING A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION TO MENSTRUATION

PAD-UP CREATIONS LIMITED is creating a world in which every woman and girl child can manage her menstruation in a hygiene way, wherever she is, in privacy, safety and dignity!!!!!

With much curiosity and attention….. Nollywood celebrities impressed at the existing innovation and development while trying to find out more about Africa’s number one leading washable and reusable 100% chemical free sanitary pads from PAD-UP CREATIONS LIMITED.

In some developed countries, women in the working class can spend independently on menstruation in their lifetime compare to the women living in rural communities where they cost will be very expensive and not affordable by the poor women who have to struggle to afford period products. People in vulnerable situations are affected most by period poverty, including people already facing homelessness, low income, and systemic exclusion for being members of marginalized groups. Folks in vulnerable situations may need to sacrifice meager food budgets or cope with negative health issues due to a lack of accessible period products and sanitary facilities.

Certain physical health risks is on the increasing edge when safe sanitation facilities, such as toilets and hand washing areas, are difficult to access or non-existent leading to another sets of complication most likely to be faced by the poor communities. These facilities are still too rare to access across the globe where billions of women and girls do not have access to safe sanitation services lacking basic amenities such as toilets, privacy, hand washing facilities and so on. Women and girls who menstruate may be forced to use inadequate materials or self made options for their period or use period products for a prolonged time beyond the expected life span of a product which is at the increasing chance of reproductive and urinary tract infections among other harmful outcomes or diseases that these women and girls are prone to contacting.

For those who can afford it, switching to multi-use alternatives seems an easy environmental choice, as they generate much less waste in the environment reducing the rates of waste to be burnt. Such as menstrual cups and washable pads which can be used for couple of years, but sustainability is not achieved yet given that these reusable products cannot be properly managed or kept as they have to be washed properly well with water after each use and unfortunately these women and girls still lack access to water . Factors like water temperature, detergent used, and drying method can influence the environmental impact of reusable products, like underwear and reusable pads so there is very important and urgent need to educate women, girls and those who menstruate about how to use and care for themselves and their environment.

For those who can afford it, switching to multi-use alternatives seems an easy environmental choice, when they can get their hands easily on the products, which are more readily available and cheaper to buy. Reusable alternative might turn out to be cheaper, but many people cannot stump up that amount of cash in one go. Access to affordable and sustainable menstrual hygiene products (e.g. menstrual cloths, reusable pads, disposable pads, menstrual cups and tampons) is key to improving menstrual health and hygiene. Yet only a fraction of women and girls in developing countries use sanitary products during menstruation. Individuals use specific menstrual hygiene products based on their availability which is production, knowledge, awareness, income, affordability and region that is a comfortable level of use from the cultural context.

Affordability is a strong barrier to access menstrual products, particularly for poor women in rural areas where the menstruating women and girls cannot afford menstrual products especially women with low-income who finds it difficult to afford menstrual hygiene products such as tampons or pads during the periods. Access to affordable and sustainable menstrual products is key to improving menstrual health and hygiene, but millions of women around the world can’t afford these products. A holistic approach one that combines education with infrastructure, products, and efforts to tackle the societal taboos and stigma surrounding the issue is most successful in achieving good menstrual health hygiene and improving development outcomes for women and adolescent girls.

Social entrepreneurs around the world are creating disruptive new solutions and catalyzing change in the sector to provide affordable menstrual products and reproductive health information to women and girls. The challenges menstruating girls and women face is often less tangible than simply the availability of infrastructure, and is rooted in social norms and beliefs. In many cultures, menstruating women are considered impure and are systematically excluded from participating in every-day activities, such as education, employment, and cultural and religious practices. Moreover, the taboos and stigmas attached to menstruation lead to an overall culture of silence around the topic, resulting in limited information on menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Such misinformation can have ramifications on the health and dignity of girls and women and how it can be disregarded of menstrual hygiene needs serves to the lower status of women and girls.

Menstruation is stigmatized all over the world.

Menstruation is a normal and healthy part of life for most women. Roughly half of the female population are around the global population of reproductive age. Most women menstruate each month for about three to seven days but yet as normal as it seems to be, menstruation is stigmatized around the world. A lack of information about menstruation leads to damaging misconceptions and discrimination, and can cause girls to miss out on normal childhood experiences and activities. Stigma, taboos and myths prevent adolescent girls and boys from the opportunity to learn about menstruation and develop healthy habit. It is very possible to envision a world where every girl can learn, play, and safeguard her own health without experiencing stress, shame, or unnecessary barriers to information or supplies during menstruation irrespective of where and when they found themselves which is a fundamental needs of all adolescent girls.

Things you didn’t know about menstruation.

On average a woman menstruates for about 7 years during their lifetime. The first period can be met with either celebration, fear or concern. For every girl, this signifies an important transition into womanhood which is a time when they would benefit from the support of family and friends .Many girls do not have complete and accurate understanding of menstruation as a normal biological process. Educating girls before their first period by parents or guardian is very and highly important as that will assist in positively building their confidence, contributes to social solidarity and encourages healthy habits. Such information should be provided at home and at school. Poor menstrual hygiene can pose physical health risks and has been linked to reproductive and urinary tract infections.

Many girls and women have limited options for affordable menstrual materials. Providing access to private facilities with water and safer low-cost menstrual materials could reduce urogenital diseases. Girls and women with disabilities and special needs face additional challenges with menstrual hygiene and are affected disproportionately with lack of access to toilets with water and materials to managing their period regularly .Many women and girls do not have access to materials to manage their menstruation especially in times of emergencies, natural disasters and conflicts and so on and so forth.

Many women who use both cloth and pad usually consider cloth to be unhygienic. At the root of this belief are the myths and taboos that limit women’s ability to wash and dry cloth in a hygienic way. Many women do not have access to privacy and washing facilities thereby choose not to dry cloth under open sunlight for the humiliation of being seen by male members of the family and outsiders. Women tend to dry their menstrual cloth indoors, concealed in closets and hidden under mattresses. Such practices render the cloth unhygienic and contribute to the belief that cloth is inferior to pad. But we also found unhygienic practices among the pad users as it is was common practice to use the same pad for the whole day or to use it on two consecutive days if the flow was light.

General culture of silence around periods meant that women did not feel comfortable seeking information from better informed people (health workers, teachers) and ended up believing what they are told by women in the family and friends. Although it was common for women to have had some schooling and for younger girls to have studied in college with some attending university, we found that formal education made little difference to beliefs about menstrual products. Majority of the women in our society today threw their pads out with routine waste and it is also common to see soiled pads floating in open streams and gutters next to dwellings where pads are found discarded and soiled in the waterways close to their homes as it was the most convenient way of disposing it.

What is Sustainable Menstruation?

What’s this movement about?

Sustainable menstruation refers to the use of alternative products during one’s menstrual cycle for the benefit of the body and earth. Sustainable menstruation is being mindful of the negative effects of disposable sanitary products tends to have on our environment in efforts to reduce the plastic waste ending up in our oceans or landfills

This movement also focuses on the access to sustainable menstruation products all people who menstruate should have. Many who have a difficult time purchasing healthy menstrual products look at sustainable menstrual products as a healthier and cheaper product to use.

What’s so wrong with disposable products?

Plastic Menstrual products generate more than 200,000 tonnes of waste per year. Most menstrual hygiene products are made up of plastic and are non-biodegradable, taking approximately 500 to 800 years to decompose.Menstrual hygiene products such as pads and tampons usually contain dangerous chemicals, like pesticide residues, bleach, and phthalates that cause harm to the body.

Here’s what you can do about it:

To have a more eco-friendly period with your menstrual kits, Use what feels right for your unique body which is no other than washable and reusable products.

For now, here is your best options to reduce your sanitary waste!

These and more are some of the sustainable menstrual products to pick from PAD-UP WASHABLE AND REUSABLE SANITARY PADS WHICH ARE 100% CHEMICAL FREE these sanitary pads are super thin and flexible, can absorb more than a regular disposable pad, it is breathable and it has minimum of one year and maximum use of three years. PAD-UP MENSTRUAL KITS are safe and easy to use, wash, rinse and sun dry properly.

PAD-UP MENSTRUAL KIT

PAD-UP MENSTRUAL KIT are affordable and accessible menstrual kit underwear that hold three to five and even more teaspoons of menstrual blood. These underwear are absorbent and washable.

Plastic-Free Applicators

If you want to start by cutting out plastic applicators, this is your best bet! These work just exactly the way you want your menstrual kit to be and it is chemical free without plastic.

Money saved with reusable

A person who menstruates spends an average of $12,800 on menstrual care products and disposes of over 10,000 products into landfills during their lifetime. You can save money and the environment just by switching to PAD-UP MENSTRUAL KIT- WASHABLE AND REUSABLE WITH 100% CHEMICAL FREE reusable menstrual care products!

PAD-UP CREATIONS LIMITED is creating a world in which every woman and girl can manage her menstruation in a hygienic way – wherever she is – in privacy, safety and with dignity!

SENSITIZATION TO FARMERS IN THE RURAL COMMUNITIES

As FARMS ON THE WHEELS and PAD-UP CREATIONS LIMITED sensitizes the rural farmers on farming…. Not only on farming as well as their health is important. Medical outreach alongside menstrual hygiene management, reproduction as well as cancer awareness and prevention were not left out respectively.

In recent years, many observers have suggested that agricultural and rural development strategies would benefit from increased collaboration between government research and extension organizations and Non Governmental Development Organizations, hereafter called GOs and NGOs, respectively. Donors in particular have begun to call for more NGO involvement in programmes that have traditionally been implemented through the public sector, and there has been a recent upsurge of donor interested in direct-funding south-based NGOs. These advocates of closer NGO-GO collaboration have tend to be underemphasize.

The wide range of interaction that currently exists, not all of it collaborative; much involves pressure by one side or the other.· The limitations facing efforts to work together, the preconditions for successful collaboration in particular, leads to the prior informal contacts necessary to build up mutual trust, understanding and limitations as well as success stories and achieved objectives aimed at by the activities of the NGO initial outreach effectively thereby leading through its extent to which certain functions relating to farm produce will remain more cost-effectively performed by the public sector than by NGOs. Analysis of how GOs might work with NGOs must be accompanied by continuing attention to ways of improving public sector management, an area in which structural adjustment reforms have not had the success expected. These draws on a recent major study of the role of NGOs in sustainable agricultural development and the potential for collaborativeness following the characteristics of NGOs, their strengths and weaknesses in relation to agricultural technology, and the practical ways in which they and public sector extension services might collaborate more fully in the nearest future of poor farmers without easy access to more commercialised farming and technological development.

NGOs are defined here as non-membership development-oriented organizations. Our concern here is with the stronger of the south-based NGOs that provide services either directly to the rural poor or to grass-roots membership organizations, and with the local branches of international NGOs that enjoy varying degrees of autonomy. They are therefore distinct from formal and informal membership organizations such as farmers’ associations. But even within this definition, there exists wide diversity of origins and philosophy. Some NGOs were set up by left-leaning professionals or academics in opposition to the politics of government or its support for or indifference to the prevailing patterns of corruption, patronage, or authoritarianism. Some are based on religious principles, others on a broadly humanitarian ethos, and yet others were set up as quasi-consultancy concerns in response to recent donor-funding initiatives. Some NGOs reject existing social and political structures and see themselves as engines for radical change; others focus on more gradual change through development of human resources (usually through group formation) to meet their own needs or to make claims on government services; yet others focus more simply on the provision of services largely within existing structures.

Their ideological orientations also differ widely in relation to agricultural technology: many are concerned with low external input in agriculture while others pursue fundamentally organic approaches, especially in the case of societies whereby some are concerned to strengthen or reinstate traditional agricultural practices which formed the basis of social organization .Of crucial importance when considering NGO-GO links is that NGOs are solely and firmly independent in the sense that, it is not necessary upon them to collaborate with research and extensional services in the way that government departments might be observing in the field generally. They will only therefore collaborate when the GOs have something useful, important and beneficialt to offer to its targeted audience.

Majority of NGOs are small and horizontally structured with short lines of communication which are usually capable of responding flexibility and rapid growth and development to poor farmers in dire need and sustainable development to changing the living circumstances in which most of them tend to find themselves. They are also characterized by a work ethic conducive to generating sustainable processes and impacts where most of the NGOs’ concern with the rural poor means that they often maintain a field presence in remote locations, where it is difficult to keep government staff in post.· One of NGOs’ main concerns has been to identify the needs of the rural poor in sustainable agricultural development. They have therefore pioneered a wide range of participatory methods for diagnosis and have helped developed and introduced systems approaches for testing new technologies.

In some cases, these approaches have extended beyond fanning systems into processing and marketing, as some of the existing NGOs’ rappor with farmers to allow them to draw on local knowledge systems in the design of technology options and to strengthen such systems by ensuring that the technologies developed are reintegrated into them as some NGOs have also developed innovative dissemination methods to ensure that the information will be simplified such that they are clearly understood by farmers and made easily accessible to them. Some of the agencies are committed to meeting up with the needs of farmers in the agricultural system where explanations on how to understand the weather forecast individually by farmers will assist farmers to improve on their yields across the territory effectively and efficiently as the weather forecast is key to optimum agricultural production and productivity in areas such as crop, livestock, fisheries productions and production of forestry resources and lots more.

Embarking on sensitization will help in averting the harsh farming weather system if farmers understand the weather forecast correctly it assist them in knowing the right crops to be planted at the appropriate time during the rainy seasons as this initiative is very important because the various farmers will be educated on all the farming aspects, especially in terms of weather prediction and what type of crop to be planted at various season. It will also help to increase food production.

This sensitization will go a long way in improving productivity at large ensuring that in the nearest future we can take care of the entire country. So therefore, farmers especially the ones in the rural areas with little or not sustainable access should be taken into serious consideration during the programmes. The downcasting of the forecast is being carried out in collaboration with experts and others to sensitize the general farmers with specific attention to selected crops and animals grown, as captured in the forecast, endeavour to comprise community based monitoring programmes, watershed development well-established organization is engaged in comprehensive rural development initiatives which It focuses on agriculture, allied sector development, climate change adaptation, watershed, natural resource management, social development, training, and capacity building.

Ending Poverty, changing the lives of the poor farmers in the rural areas and communities adjusts and improves living standards, develops and delivers innovative and self-sustaining programmes for social impact in the farming system. Carring out development works and programmes aimed at empowering rural farmers by incorporating innovative practices and the use of modern technologies aim to empower million of rural farmers through a holistic development with a focus on health, education, water and sanitation, and economic development.

Opportuinities should also be given to the women folks to encourage organic farming as trainin and programmes also should be run for the female farmers to support and to inform them about various government schemes. Sensitization is the purpose of poverty reduction through sustainable livelihood creation, girls education, rural development and civil society development, where beneficiaries are poor, landless agricultural farmers, small and marginal farmers, traditional artisans, poor women, uneducated girl children, unemployed youth, etc. Sensitization provides and promotes capacity building and training to support diverse groups to connect to rural communities with corporates, corporatives young urban, not-for-profit organisations and governments, enabling marginalised communities to improve their lives. Especially, as it aims to achieve equality in the lives of women, landless labourers, and the farming community.

MENSTRUAL HYGIENE MANAGEMENT IN GIRLS AND WOMEN

Little attention has been given to understanding the ways in which MHM contributes to school absenteeism and other gender disparities. One notable initiative that has been implemented in rural communities and schools during programmes that promote sanitation and hygiene behaviours and provide improvements to the sanitation infrastructure including MHM friendly facilities. Schools with such programmes will most likely have ventilated improved toilets with a covered pit and a designated hand washing facility with a cleaning agent (soap/ash).

Understanding the differences between MHM practices across schools with and without SLTS can provide important insights on the effectiveness of SLTS for MHM. This study was conducted to understand girls’ experiences of managing their menstruation and to further explore how the menstrual hygiene environment within schools may affect their Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions aimed at keeping girls in school through provision of sanitary materials, water, soap and privacy show mixed impact on school absenteeism. Research has shown that cleanliness of school latrines reduced the odds of absenteeism and others suggest that one in ten school-aged girls in low and middle income countries fail to attend school during menstruation or drop out of school at puberty due to the absence of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) facilities.

Quantitative studies reveals that moderate to non-significant improvements to school attendance associated with MHM interventions .Nonetheless, WASH for MHM should be considered as a basic right to ensure girls’ comfort, self-confidence and school attendance to reduce gender disparities in education, health and socio-political and economic participation. Menstrual hygiene management requires availability of access to clean and absorbent menstrual material, privacy, water and soap, and disposal facilities for used menstrual materials. However, most schools in developing countries, especially in rural areas, have inadequate facilities including water supply for girls to wash hands, external genitalia and soiled clothes, nor do they have provision for privacy, soap, sanitary pads and disposal of soiled sanitary pads.

Girls’ participation and psychological well-being while in class is affected when they do not have access to sanitary pads or adequate alternatives because they fear staining their clothes and subsequently being teased and humiliated by their classmates. It is not surprising then, that attendant hormonal disruptions notwithstanding, girls’ school performance has been noted to decline after they attain menarche. Education of girls directly impacts national health and national development as well as economic and social progress. Educated women tend to have fewer children, lead healthier lifestyles and raise healthier families by making more informed choices. Being more likely to practice and seek appropriate preventive and medical services such as personal hygiene, nutrition and immunization, they help reduce infant morbidity and mortality in the nation, this in turn leads to lowered fertility rates and higher market productivity thereby improving the national economy. However, this potential is cut short with girls dropping out or not attending school, which is reflected in the low female literacy levels of approximately 58%. About 44% of girls are reported to drop out of school before completing their secondary education .

One reason for this interruption could be inadequate provision for MHM that does not allow all girls to attend school with dignity and comfort during their menstruation while menstruating, schoolgirls in rural areas and communities would rather stay home than be uncomfortable, inactive and embarrassed due to inadequate MHM facilities at school. A friendly and supportive MHM environment that provides education, absorbent sanitary materials and adequate WASH facilities is essential to providing equal opportunity for all girls. While in school, girls require an environment that is supportive of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in order to ensure regular school attendance and participation. Little is known about schoolgirls access to and practice of MHM in rural areas. This show girls’ experiences of MHM in rural schools from the perspectives of schoolgirls, schoolboys and communities and school-based adults key to MHM for school girls.

Most girls reported learning about menstruation only at menarche and did not know the physiological basis of menstruation. The girls reported MHM-related challenges, including: use of non-absorbent and uncomfortable menstrual clothes and inadequate provision of sanitary materials, water, hygiene and sanitation facilities (WASH) in schools. In particular, toilets did not have soap and water or doors and locks for privacy and had a bad odor. Girls’ school attendance and participation in physical activities was compromised when menstruating due to fear of teasing (especially by boys and their fellow females) and embarrassment from menstrual leakage. Boys said they could tell when girls were menstruating by the smell and their behaviour, for instance, moving less and isolating themselves from their peers. Girls complained of friction burns on their inner thighs during their long journey to school due to chaffing of wet non-absorbent material used to make menstrual clothes.

Girls preferred to dispose used menstrual materials in pit latrines and not waste bins for fear that they could be retrieved for witchcraft against them. Though traditional leaders and female guardians played a pivotal role in teaching girls MHM, they have not resolved challenges to MHM among Menstrual Hygiene is vital to the empowerment and well-being of women and girls worldwide. It is about more than just access to sanitary pads and appropriate toilets, though those are important. It is also about ensuring women and girls live in an environment that values and supports their ability to manage their menstruation with dignity, maintaining their integrity as well as pride as a female they are proud to be and will forever be.

Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) refers to a stage in the live time of girls and women, where irreversably women and adolescent girls will have to make use of clean menstrual management materials to absorb or collect blood that consistently comes out of their body through their private parts for a specific number of days. Girls at schools and women at work, offices or even at home are expected to change their sanitary kits in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period, using soap and water for washing the body as required, and having access to facilities to dispose off used menstrual management materials.

Globally, at least 500 million women and girls lack proper access to menstrual hygiene facilities. Several factors influence difficult experiences with menstruation, including inadequate facilities and materials, menstrual pain, fear of disclosure, and inadequate knowledge about the menstrual cycle. In most cases, only 1 in every 2 girls have knowledge about menstruation before their first period, while in some other cases, only 1 in every 4 girls know about it before their first period. In some rural areas, 1 out of 2 girls misses one to three days out of school per month due to lack of access to sustainably solutions to leakage, fall-off, stain and stigmatization during their menstruation.

In our society today, for 1 out of 2 girls, mothers are the most important source of information about menstruation as they are very observant and the female child tends to be very close and free to communicate with their mothers rather than their fathers, then followed by those whom they observe their characters goes hand in hand whom at the long run luckily happens to be their friends and are fee and willing to discuss whatever it is they are passing through as well as trying their very best to keep each other little secrets safe and confidential.

Menstrual Hygiene Day ( MAY 28) is a special day dedicated to bringing awareness around the vital role that good menstrual hygiene management (MHM) plays in empowering women and adolescent girls worldwide to become self-confident, self-reliant, independent and all that they can be individually. The vision behind MH Day is a world in which every woman and girl is able to manage her menstruation in a hygienic way, in safety, privacy, and with dignity and integrity wherever they maybe irrespective of gender, tribe, race or even environment .

Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to the females, the onset of menstruation is one of the most important changes occurring among the girls during their adolescent years. The first menstruation (menarche) occurs between 11 and 15 years with a mean of 13 years. Adolescent girls constitute a vulnerable group, particularly in areas where female child is been neglected and treated as a bad omen to the development of the society. Menstruation is still regarded as something unclean, dirty, bad omen, taboo, a disease, a curse, a stigma and many distabilizing, cruel,ill-mannered words and categorization in many of our developed and developing society.

Reaction to menstruation depends upon the kind of awareness and knowledge about the subject. The manner in which a girl learns about menstruation and its associated changes may have an impact on her response to the event of menarche. Although menstruation is a natural process, it is linked with several misconceptions and practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI). The interplay of socio-economic status, menstrual hygiene practices and RTI are noticeable. Today millions of women are suffering from RTI and its complications are that, oftenly the infection is transmitted to the offspring of the pregnant mother. Women having better knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene and safe practices are less vulnerable to RTI and its consequences. Therefore, increased knowledge about menstruation right from childhood may escalate safe practices and may help in mitigating the suffering of millions of women and girls out there in our society.

Menstrual hygiene, is a very important risk factor for Reproductive Track Infections and it is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today. Reproductive Tract Infections, which has become a silent epidemic that devastates women’s life is closely interrelated with poor menstrual hygiene. Therefore, proper menstrual hygiene and correct perceptions and beliefs can protect the women folk in the society from this suffering. Before bringing any change in menstrual practices, the girls should be educated about the facts of menstruation, physiological implications, about the significance of menstruation and development of secondary sexual characteristics, and above all, about proper hygienic practices with selection of disposable sanitary menstrual absorbent. This can be achieved through educational television programmes, menstrual hygiene cross section talks with girls and women in various schools and communities, school nurses/health personnel, compulsory sex education in school curriculum and knowledgeable parents, so that her received education would indirectly wipe away the age-old wrong ideas and make her feel free to discuss menstrual matters including cleaner practices without any hesitation.

All mothers irrespective of their educational status should be taught to break their inhibitions about discussing with their daughters regarding menstruation much before the age of menarche. Lack of privacy is an important problem. In resource poor contexts, where women do not have access to basic facilities such as water, bathroom and privacy, the standard of hygiene one can maintain is severely compromised. There is a need to improve the housing conditions with respect to basic facilities. Universalized use of sanitary pads can be advocated to every girl only by making it available at affordable prices (social marketing).

Through the help of talks show programmes, training, seminar and lots more, has helps in revealing that menstrual hygiene is far from satisfactory among a large proportion of the adolescents while ignorance, false perceptions, unsafe practices regarding menstruation and reluctance of the mother to educate her child are also quite common among them. Thus, reinforcement needs to be put in place to encourage, promote and assure safe and hygienic practices among the adolescent girls thereby bring them out of our traditional beliefs, misconceptions and restrictions regarding menstruation.

Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes.

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